Capture all blackletter forms (including variant forms in textura and rotunda (which mostly resemble "U"), and bastarda (which mostly resemble "V") as V


ExampleCapture asComment
VStd. textura U-like "V"
VStd. textura U-like "V"
VStd. textura U-like "V"
Vvhe~Std. textura U-like "V" combined with "v" to mean "W"
VvhereStd. textura U-like "V" combined with "v" to mean "W"
VvhoseStd. textura U-like "V" combined with "v" to mean "W"
VhoseStd. textura U-like "V" used in role of "W"
VvhoStd. textura U-like "V" combined with "v" to mean "W"
VhereStd. textura U-like "V" used in role of "W"

Note the equivalence assumed here between the blackletter "U"-like V and the Roman V:
K Know thou thy self: soule slainyng sinne,
N Nip in the head, ere it begin.
E Endeuour not to clime to hye:
V Vse not the needy to denye.
E Exalt the hiest with praises oft:
T That thou mayst mount the skies aloft.

Bastarda and Fraktur

ExampleCapture asComment
VStd. bastarda V-like V. (resembles swash V but capture as V)
VStd. bastarda V-like V. (resembles swash V but capture as V)
VElaborated bastarda V-like V. (resembles high-left V; capture as V)
VonFraktur(?) V


ExampleCapture asComment
VvRotunda U-like V paired with lower-case v
VRotunda U-like V
VvhereforeRotunda U-like V paired with lower-case v to serve as "W"


In italic fonts, distinguish between three forms: "U" "V" and "&V;". Capture the standard (but uncommon) rounded U form as "U"; the pointed "V" form as "V" and the 'swash' form as "&V;"

Rounded standard U (rare)

ExampleCapture asComment
UtrechtUpper-case rounded U
UnitedUpper-case rounded U
UsherUpper-case rounded U
GOVERNOURUpper-case rounded roman U (but treat as italic); contrasted with pointed V

Pointed standard V

ExampleCapture asComment
VitaeUpper-case pointed V
VxorUpper-case pointed V
DAVISUpper-case pointed V
HANVY,Upper-case pointed V
VaughanUpper-case pointed V
REVEN&V;ES.Upper-case pointed V contrasted with swash-V
VUpper-case pointed V

Ambiguous 'swash' form of upper-case U/V

Upper-case italic swash-V
ExampleCapture asComment
&V;Upper-case italic swash-V
PL&V;NKETUpper-case italic swash-V
CO&V;NCILUpper-case italic swash-V
LA&V;GHLINUpper-case italic swash-V
H&V;BBERTUpper-case italic swash-V
SHAFTSB&V;RYUpper-case italic swash-V
LIE&V;TENANTSUpper-case italic swash-V
D&V;BLIN,Upper-case italic swash-V
B&V;SIEUpper-case italic swash-V
D&V;FFYUpper-case italic swash-V
CO&V;NSELLORSUpper-case italic swash-V
M&V;RPHYUpper-case italic swash-V
&V;ice,Upper-case italic swash-V
NARATI&V;EUpper-case italic swash-V
HAN&V;YUpper-case italic swash-V


Roman U and V rarely cause problems. The only possibly ambiguous form is probably the plain rounded U without any vertical descender extending to the baseline on the right side. Treat this as "U".
ExampleCapture asComment
UUpper-case Roman U
VUpper-case Roman V
UUpper-case Roman 'round-bottomed' U

APPENDIX: Lower-case u/v

Blackletter and Fraktur

There are distinct forms for "u" and "v". Capture the u as u and the v as v.

ExampleCapture asComment
uTextura lower-case u.
u,Textura lower-case u.
muchRotunda lower-case u.
vTextura lower-case v.
vTextura lower-case v.
vRotunda lower-case v.
vsRotunda lower-case v.
zuFraktur lower-case u.
vndFraktur lower-case v.


Capture the standard rounded form as "u"; the pointed, hunch-shouldered form as "v"; and the 'swash' form (which does not seem to enjoy the same ambiguity as its upper-case counterpart) also as v.

Standard lower-case u

ExampleCapture asComment
sicutItalic lower-case u.
tua,Italic lower-case u.
ourItalic lower-case u.

Lowercase high-left (or 'hunch-shouldered') v

ExampleCapture asComment
vineLower-case italic 'high-left' v
vxorLower-case italic 'high-left' v
vsLower-case italic 'high-left' v

Lowercase swash v

ExampleCapture asComment
vxor,Lower-case italic 'swash v'
vitis,Lower-case italic 'swash v'
virLower-case italic 'swash v'
viuentium,Lower-case italic 'swash v', contrasted with 'u'
varietyLower-case italic 'swash v'


If you do not recognize the typeface, or if the letter is exceptional, capture it as U or V depending on its general appearance.

ExampleCapture asComment